Study area

The Reykjanes Peninsula (RP) in Iceland consists of five major volcanic systems including the Brennisteinsfjöll, the Krýsuvík, the Fagradalsfjall, the Reykjanes, and the Eldey. The Fagradalsfjall volcanic complex is located ~40 km southwest of Reykjavik and covers an area of ~80 km². The 2021 Fagradalsfjall effusive eruption lasted from March to September and marked the end of a long dormancy period in the RP.